Modelling non-motorised transport for applications in road investment appraisal
Md. Mahabubul Bari, Jennaro B. Odoki and Henry R. Kerali
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Non-motorised transport (NMT) modes contribute significantly to meeting the total demand for carrying goods and passengers in many countries, particularly in Asia and Africa. When planning investments in the roads sector, it is necessary to evaluate all costs and benefits associated with the proposed program or project over the expected life of the road. Road agency costs and road user costs constitute what is commonly referred to as the total road transport cost or the wholelife cycle cost. Investment planning should aim at maximising benefits to society and stakeholders.This paper describes the development of new and improved approaches to NMT modelling on the basis of a large-scale study conducted in Bangladesh during the period from 1996 to 2000. A number of different strategies were deployed for modelling NMT free speeds, speed–flow relationships under heterogeneous traffic stream, and for the evaluation ofNMT time and operating costs. The models developed in this research can be used in road investment planning models, such as the Highway Development and Management tool (HDM-4), for quantifying the different components of road user cost resulting from changes in road and traffic characteristics. This enables the estimation of benefits derived by both NMT and motorised transport from road improvements.
Rail-related fatalities in Victoria, Australia: 1990-2002
Eric Wigglesworth, Annette Graham and Virginia Routley
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The Victorian Coronial Database was searched for information concerning the number and type of rail-related deaths that had occurred between January1990 and December 2002 in Victoria. During that period, a total of 567 such deaths occurred. Of these,368 were intentional deaths (suicides) and 171 were unintentional deaths (accidents). In 28 cases the intent was not determined. There were about 5 male deaths for each 2 female deaths both for accidents and suicide. These results show that the pattern of rail-related deaths in Victoria has changed dramatically. First, in the 1970s, about 25 persons died each year: but by the end of the century this had been reduced to11. Secondly, the reduction in the number of accidents to motor vehicle occupants had been accompanied by an increase in pedestrian suicides, whilst the major location of injury had switched from the railway crossing to the track itself. The suicide death rate was greater than the accidental death rate for every year of the study and the disparity increased over time, due primarily to the increase in the annual rate of rail-related suicides during the study period.
Do elderly Victorians in rural areas have access to public transport?
Suzanne Corcoran, Erica L. James and Julie M. Ellis
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Urban-rural health inequalities are linked to socio-economic disadvantage and inequitable access to health services. In most empirical rural health research, transport availability is not considered an integral component of access for the non-metropolitan elderly population. This study examined the proportion of people aged over 65 years in the Loddon Mallee Region (LMR) of Victoria who had access to public transport according to census collection districts(CDs). Using Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)census data, CDs were mapped and identified as having access to public transport if a bus or train stop was situated within the CD boundaries. CDs were classified according to the Accessibility Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA) to determine whether there was a relationship between ARIA rating and access to public transport services. The results indicate that approximately 50% of people over 65 years do not have access to public transport. The people living in a CD with a more remote ARIA classification were less likely to have access to public transport. These results have implications for transport policy especially given the predictions of ageing rural population growth.
Differences between the AUSTROADS Roundabout Guide and aaSIDRA roundabout analysis methods
Rahmi Akçelik and Mark Besley
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The roundabout capacity analysis method used in aaSIDRA was originally based on the method described in ARRB Special Report SR 45 which was introduced into aaSIDRA with some variations and extensions. The SR 45 method was also incorporated into the AUSTROADS (1993) Roundabout Guide with some minor modifications. Subsequently, significant enhancements were introduced in various versions of aaSIDRA, including some important changes introduced in the latest version aaSIDRA 2.1, based on further research and development. This paper presents a summary of the differences between the AUSTROADS Roundabout Guide and aaSIDRA methods for roundabout capacity and performance analysis, and discusses some important aspects of the analysis method where significant differences exist.
Sustainable transport - separating the meaning from the mantra
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This paper was the opening keynote address at the ‘International Conference on Seamless and Sustainable Transport’ organised by the Centre for Transportation Studies at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore in November 2002. It is published herewith permission in the interests of information dissemination and to continue the debate on ‘sustainable transport’. The Editor welcomes other contributions and comment on this subject.
‘Sustainable transport’ takes on many meanings in policy debate, each with its own objectives and implications. The emphasis might, for example, be on sustainable development, sustainable freight movement, sustainable mobility or environmental sustainability. The paper expands on the theme of sustainable safety in the road transport system, within the complex context of these various policy interests. It argues that the policy objectives of ‘sustainable transport’ need to be stated more explicitly. This would lead to more constructive debate about the balance to be achieved between each objective. Such difficult socio-political decisions require better tools and processes than we currently have available. Ultimately, the fundamental issue of the role of the car in modern society needs to be examined. A more utilitarian view of the car could allow us to retain its benefits while managing its negatives.