Abstracts March 2010
Vol.19 No 1

On-board mass monitoring of heavy vehicles: results of testing programs

Paper 1

Lloyd Davis, Charles Karl, David Cai, Jonathan Bunker, Anthony Germanchev, Peter Eady and Chris Blanksby

Refereed Paper
This paper has been critically reviewed by at least two recognised experts in the field.
Originally submitted: April 2009

Abstract
The Transport Certification Australia on-board mass feasibility project is testing various on-board mass devices in a range of heavy vehicles (HVs). Extensive field tests of on-board mass (OBM) measurement systems for HVs were conducted during 2008. These tests were of accuracy, robustness and tamper evidence of HV on-board mass telematics. All systems tested showed accuracies within approximately ±500 kg of gross combination mass, or approximately ±2% of the attendant weighbridge reading. Analysis of the dynamic data also showed encouraging results, and has raised the possibility of using such dynamic information in tamper evidence in two areas. This analysis was to determine if the use of averaged dynamic data could identify potential tampering or incorrect operating procedures, as well as the possibility of dynamic measurements flagging a tamper event by the use of metrics including a tampering index. Technical and business options to detect tamper events will now be developed during implementation of regulatory OBM system application to Australian HVs.

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Current child restraint practice in Queensland, new legislation and future challenges

Paper 2

Alexia Lennon, Kirsteen Titchener and Narelle Haworth

Refereed Paper
This paper has been critically reviewed by at least two recognised experts in the field.
Originally submitted: August 2009

Abstract
Correct use of child restraints reduces the risk of death and injury. Use of adult seat belts is better than being unrestrained but can result in injury to children who are too small. New Australian legislation extends the requirement for using childs pecific restraints until children are 7 years old and thus requires more appropriate levels of protection for these children. As part of a larger study of injury prevention in Queensland, parents of children 0–9 years old were surveyed regarding their restraint practices before the introduction of the new legislation. The restraint status of 18% of the children would not be compliant with the new legislation, with the problem being more prevalent for 5–9 year olds (22%) than 0–4 year olds (16%). A high proportion of older children used an adult seat belt. Very few children aged 0–4 (1.3%) usually travelled in the front seat in contravention of the new requirement, but about 11% of this age group were reported as ever having done so. Usual travel in the front seat was higher among 5–9 year olds (8.5%), with more than half of the 5–9 year olds reported as ever having done so. Given the widespread use of adult seat belts by older children, there is a need to consider improving protection of children in the ‘gap’ between when the requirement for the child to use a booster ceases (effectively age 7) and when the adult belt is likely to actually fit the child (closer to age 9 or 10).

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Unused utility: An examination of SUV use in New Zealand form 1989 to 2006

Paper 3

Steve Lamb, Kate Mora and Darren Walton

Refereeed Paper
This paper has been critically reviewed by at least two recognised experts in the field.
Originally submitted: July 2009

Abstract
This study analyses travel survey data from 1989 to 2006 to determine whether SUV use in New Zealand has become more ‘car-like’ and less commercial. The New Zealand Household Travel Survey of 1989/1990, 1997/1998 and 2003–2006 was the primary data source. Information on vehicle make and model was used to create a consistent SUV category across all years, which was compared with a sample of cars matched by owner age, gender and income, to control for confounding influences on use. The proportion of SUVs to cars in the New Zealand vehicle fleet increased by 7.3% from 1990 to 2006. The additional utility SUVs are perceived to provide did not differentiate their pattern of use from that of cars. Privately owned SUVs are used as a substitute for cars. Lower vehicle occupancy and similar proportions of recreational trips for SUVs and cars contradict reported reasons for SUV purchases. The extra utility SUVs provide appears to be utilised by a sub-group of traditional SUVs that continue to be used for commercial purposes.

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Development of a deterministic rail-wear prediction model

Paper 4

Anuradha Premathilaka, Seosamh Costello and Roger Dunn

Refereed Paper
This paper has been critically reviewed by at least two recognised experts in the field.
Originally submitted: April 2009

Abstract
The management of the rail infrastructure in New Zealand has recently reverted to public ownership and is now managed by the New Zealand Railways Corporation (NZRC). Current legislation requires the NZRC to produce long-term strategic plans for the management of the rail track infrastructure, in order to demonstrate proper management of the public asset. However, long term strategic planning requires knowledge of not only the current condition of the asset, but also its future condition as determined from performance modelling, something previously not available for the rail infrastructure in New Zealand. This prompted a research study into the development of a deterioration model for New Zealand’s rail track infrastructure. To date, the study has focused on rail wear; rail being one of the most expensive track renewal items in New Zealand. This paper describes the development of predictive models for 50 kg/m and 91&90 lb/yd rails using the “R” statistical software originally developed at the University of Auckland. A multiple regression analysis produced models with reasonably high coefficients of determination for both ‘side wear on the high leg’ and ‘top wear on the low leg’ on 50 kg/ m curved tracks and for total wear on both high leg and low leg for 91&90 lb/yd rails. Both are ‘absolute models’, as the accuracy of the data collection techniques employed did not permit the development of an incremental model. Nonetheless, these will undoubtedly prove valuable to decision makers. However, the variability in the data suggests that a probabilistic model would be more appropriate than a deterministic model at the network level. In particular, rail wear would be better represented at the network level by a stochastic process such as the Markov model. Such a model is now in the process of being developed and will be reported in future publications.

 

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Analysing the effectiveness of park and ride as a generator of public transport mode shift

Paper 5

Paul Hamer

Invited Paper
This paper was originally peer reviewed and presented at the 32nd Australasian Transport Research Forum, held in Auckland, New Zealand, 29 September–1 October 2009. It is published here with minor edits but without further review at the invitation of the Editor, in order to make it available to a wider audience and to place it on the published record. All papers that have been presented at the Australian Transport Research Forum since 1975 are accessible at www.patrec.org/atrf.

Abstract
Providing accessible, cheap and plentiful car parking at commuter railway stations is often advocated as a means of encouraging car drivers to shift to public transport modes for part of their journey. Accordingly, State Governments across Australia have, in recent years, committed significant money to expanding park and ride facilities on their rail networks. While such projects are popular with commuters, questions remain over the role of park and ride in increasing public transport patronage.  Passenger interview surveys were carried out at selected railway stations on the Victorian metropolitan and regional rail networks to explore the extent to which park and ride facilities generate a mode shift from car-only modes to more sustainable transport modes. The results of the survey are comparable to the public transport increases recorded in similar studies undertaken in the United Kingdom and the United States. However, a significant proportion of respondents had changed their trip patterns, suggesting that the proportion of former drivers could be higher than that recorded.  The study also suggested that the recorded shift resulted from a combination of changes in personal circumstances and transport related factors. These findings have implications for traditional economic models which assume that a return car trip to the city is saved for every diverted driver.

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Social/recreational travel and its influence on transport's greenhouse gas emissions

Paper 6

Vince Dravitzki, Tiffany Lester and Darren Walton

Invited Paper
This paper was originally peer reviewed and presented at the 32nd Australasian Transport Research Forum, held in Auckland, New Zealand,  29 September–1 October 2009. It is published here with minor edits but without further review at the invitation of the Editor, in order to make it available to a wider audience and to place it on the published record. All papers that have been presented at the Australian Transport Research Forum since 1975 are accessible at www.patrec.org/atrf.

Abstract
This paper discusses a travel purpose that should be the focus of efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from transport. For many years, travel management has focussed on the ‘to work’ travel purpose so as to maximise the efficiency of the transport network during this peak travel period.  This ‘to work’ focus has been transferred as the focus of greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies, as shown by work travel plans and the like.  This paper discusses how social/recreational trips should be a major focus for reducing greenhouse gas emissions; not just because social/recreational travel is at least an equivalent contributor to total vehicle kilometres travelled compared to the ‘to work’ trip, but also because of very strong linkages between social/recreational travel and other key transport behaviours. From New Zealand evidence,  it appears that the impetus to make social/ recreational trips has always been strong; that social/recreational trips were the dominant factor in the New Zealand uptake of private vehicles and that social/recreational trips have a strong influence on the size of vehicle purchased. A recent New Zealand study confirms that, although social/ recreational trips that require a larger-than-regular vehicle, such as holiday trips, are infrequent, these trips strongly influence the type of vehicle purchased.  Social/recreational travel has a symbiotic relationship with urban form; with vehicle uptake often initially being for social/recreational travel then high rates of vehicle access allowing settlement growth of low density urban forms; then this urban form making extended S/R travel necessary to enable families and friends to reconnect throughout these dispersed settlements.

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